Definitions of Hypothesis

definitions of hypothesis

Hypothesis word is taken from the Greek words ‘Hypo’ and ‘Tithenas’. ‘Hypo’ means under and ‘Tithenas’ means to place. In easy words we can understand that hypothesis is an intelligent prediction through which the researcher finds the relationship between two or more variables and the conclusions of the research are revealed.

The hypothesis plays one of the most important role in the whole research process done by the researcher as the hypothesis suggests which sort of research method and analysis technique are the best to choose for the particular research problem.

Example of Hypothesis: “There is no significant difference between the intelligence level of boys and girls of arts and science streams.”  (It is an example of Null Hypothesis and here the researcher wants to relationship between the intelligence level of boys and girls of arts and science streams.)

Let’s explore few major definitions of hypothesis.

Definitions of Hypothesis

“A hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the validity of which remains to be tested. In this most elementary stage, the hypothesis may be very hunch, guess, imagination data, which becomes the basis for action or investigation.”

—— George A Luniberg

“A hypothesis is written in such a way that it can be proven or disproven by valid and reliable data – in order to obtain these data that we perform our study.”

 —— Jr. Richard Grinnell

“A hypothesis is a statement capable of being tested and thereby verified or rejected.”

—— Rummel and Balline

“A hypothesis is a proposition, condition or principle which is assumed, perhaps without belief, in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known or may be determined.”

—— Webster Dictionary

“Hypothesis is a proposition which can be put to test, to determine validity.”

—— Goode and Hatt

 “A hypothesis is an attempt at explanation of a provisional supposition made in order to explain scientifically some facts or phenomenon.”

—— Coffey

“A tentative statement about something, the validity of which is usually unknown.”

—— James Black A & J Champion Dean

“A hypothesis directs our search for the order. It is not essential for a hypothesis to be necessarily true.”

—— Cohen M. and Negel E.


Types of Hypothesis

The major categorization of hypothesis can be done as follow:

Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Testable Hypothesis

We will learn more about above types of hypotheses in future posts.

The aspirants can learn more about hypothesis on the following link…

Read more about:

Important Definitions – Philosophy, Idealism, Realism, Naturalism and Pragmatism

Definitions of Education

UGC NET Free Books

Career Options after UGC NET


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Top 5 E-Books for NTA UGC NET

top 5 e-books for nta ugc net

As we all facing lockdown and paperback delivery is not possible, the NTA UGC NET aspirants can buy e-books and so they can prepare through these top 5 e-books for NTA UGC NET.

These e-books are easy to download and to read on each device such as mobile, computer, kindle or tablet etc.

Let’s explore these top 5 e-books.

E-Book No. 01

E-Book No. 02

E-Book No. 03

E-Book No. 04

E-Book No. 05

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Career Options after UGC NET

career options after ugc net

Career Options after UGC NET

As far as my experience is concerned, most of the UGC NET qualifier choose the following first two options yet there are multiple career options after clearing UGC NET examination. Let’s explore these options which are as follow:

  1. Joining the Job: Once your UGC NET examination is cleared, you are eligible for the post of Assistant Professor throughout the country. For this, you have to apply for the vacancies in colleges or university campuses. When you are shortlisted and you have cleared the interview, you can join the reputed post of Assistant Professor in university college or campus. You can apply for different sort of teaching jobs in colleges or campuses for example: Guest Faculty, Contractual Faculty or Permanent Faculty etc.

  2. Ph.D. or M.Phil : After clearing UGC NET, you can apply for M.Phil or Ph.D. for further research studies. If you have cleared NET with JRF and selected for the JRF post in university college or campus, you will be funded by UGC for the purpose also. If you are teaching as an Assistant Professor in a college or university campus and don’t want the avail the benefits of NET JRF, your Ph.D. will be so helpful your promotion to Assistant Professor post over there.
  3. Taking the Government Project: It is also another career option after UGC NET. You can join the Government project also. For the purpose you have to apply for the desired project and after selection you will be appointed for the particular project for a specific time. You can earn a handsome amount on such type of projects also. Moreover, you will earn a lot of research experience through all these experiences which will be further fruitful to you in your career.
  4. Other Options: As the UGC NET is one of the toughest exams in India, It opens the doors to multiple opportunities. After clearing UGC NET you can become an author, UGC NET expert and trainer or you can join the managerial or HR posts in public sectors such as BHEL, ONGC and IOCL etc.

 Well, all jobs are fine and it depends upon you in which career option after UGC NET you are interest.

 Right Preparation strategies are required to clear the UGC NET examinations. Click here to explore the Tips to Crack NTA UGC NET examination.

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 Best of Luck from Mohd. Rizwan

 Admin Blogger

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Important Definitions – Philosophy, Idealism, Realism, Naturalism and Pragmatism

philosophy of education

Important Definitions – Philosophy, Idealism, Realism, Naturalism and Pragmatism


“Philosophy is a persistent attempt to give insight into the nature of the world and of ourselves by means of systematic reflection.”

——- R.W. Sellars

“Philosophy like other studies, aims primarily at knowledge.”

——–Bertrand Russell


“Idealistic philosophy takes many and varied forms, but the postulate underlying all this is that mind or spirit is the essential world stuff, that the true reality is of a mental character.”

—— J.S. Ross

“Idealists point out that it is mind that is central in understanding the world. To them nothing gives a greater sense of reality than the activity of mind engaged in trying to comprehence its world. For any thing to give a greater sense of reality would be a contradiction in terms because to know any thing more real than mind would itself be a conception of mind.”



“The doctrine of realism asserts that there is a real world of things behind and corresponding to the objects of our perception.”

—–J.S. Ross

“Realism is the reinforcement of our common acceptance of this world as it appears to us.”



“Naturalism is a system whose silent characteristic is the exclusion of whatever is spiritual or indeed whatever is transcendental of experience from our philosophy of nature and man.”


“Naturalism is not science but an assertion about science. More specifically it is the assertion that scientific knowledge is final, leaving no room for extra-scientific or philosophical knowledge.”

——R.B. Perry


“Pragmatism offers us a theory of meaning, a theory of truth of knowledge and a theory of reality.”

——James B. Prett

“Pragmatism is essentially a humanistic philosophy, maintaining that man creates his own values in the course of activity that reality is still in the making and awaits its part of completion from the future, that to an unascertainable extent our truth are man-made products.”

——J.S. Ross

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Digital Initiatives in Higher Education

digital initiatives in higher education

Digital Initiatives in Higher Education

The following major digital initiatives have been taken by Ministry of Human Resource and Development, Government of India.

We must learn about all these digital initiatives in higher education as we all can learn a lot specially when we are at home to cope with coronavirus during the lockdown period . Please stay at home and be safe. Let’s have a look on digital initiatives in higher education. These are as follow:

  1. SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds) : It is a native IT course software platform which provides high quality education available for anyone and anywhere. You can visit the portal from this link
  2. SWAYAM Prabha: It includes 32 Educational DTH Channels which provide study material for different streams students such as Arts, Science and Commerce etc. Such type of study materials are useful for both regular students and for the lifelong learners also. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  3. National Digital Library (NDL): This is also a very ambitious digital initiatives in higher education. Presently more than 80 lakh e-books are available through this portal to each and everyone free of cost. This service can be accessed through the android app also. Presently more than 20 lakh students are registered in this particular platform. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  4. National Academic Depository (NAD): Through this particular initiative every citizen can access to digital certificates and awards issued by academic institutions. A number of academicians are associated with this depository as it provides free storage, access and recognition to them. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  5. e-Shodh Sindhu: This platform provides more than 15000 journals of national and international levels to the higher education institutions. This facility is run through INFLIBNET program. We can learn a lot through this specific program also. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  6. e-Yantra: This particular initiative is very specific to the incorporation of robotics into engineering education and it is based on computer science, mathematics and engineering concepts. All the content is available to everyone free of cost. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  7. e-Kalpa: More than 160 online courses related to art and design learning are covered through e-Kapla, another digital initiative of higher education. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  8. The Free and Open Source Software for Education (FOSSEE): This initiative is for the promotion of open source software in educational institutions. Different sort of seminars, conferences, documentations and other programs are conducted for the purpose. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  9. e-Vidwan: Another digital initiative in higher education is e-Vidwan which is run under The ‘Information and Library Network’ (INFLIBNET) and there is huge data of academicians and research scientists who belong to research organizations. You can visit for virtual labs from this link
  10. Virtual Labs: This initiative encourages the remote access to the labs of science and engineering. The students can learn a lot through remote experimentation. From this particular platform the students can learn about different tools and equipments also. You can visit for virtual labs from this link

Prepared By

Mohd. Rizwan 

Admin Blogger

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Role Play Method

role play method

Role Play Method

“Role Playing is the changing of one’s behaviour to fulfill a social role.”
——- Oxford English Dictionary

The famous philosopher John Dewey suggested that students learn easily through learning-by-doing. Role play method of teaching is one of the most popular methods of teaching as it provides new realistic experiences to the group of students through acting and observation according to managed situation. It is based on socio-psycho drama. The students try to act like they are the real characters so that the required lessons can be taught to them and other students also.

Students’ active participation is required to make the role play successful so a teacher should make his or her students understand and aware about the situation as role playing method of teaching is not effective if the students do not understand about it.

Role playing is an important method of teaching to develop and to enhance the abilities of thinking, adjustment, communication skills, observation skills, problem solving and creativity. Role playing enables students to cope up with unseen problems and difficulties in their lives.

Successful role play should be brief and the evaluation should be done immediately. Moreover, the role play method should be applied under the supervision of an expert counselor. When the role play is over, an appropriate discussion should be there to know what the students have learnt through role play method.

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Difference among Conference, Workshop, Seminar and Symposium

seminar and conference

Difference among Conference, Workshop, Seminar and Symposium

Few terms are commonly asked in UGC NET examination so a UGC NET aspirant must know about the difference among Conference, Workshop, Seminar and Symposium. All these are conducted to develop the higher cognitive abilities. Let’s know about all these as follow:

Conference:- A conference is a formal event in which a number of researchers, teachers, organizations delegates and academics gather to discuss and present their works on a specific topic. Specific information only a particular topic is discussed and shared among the participants in conference. Conferences are conducted for longer period usually.

Workshop:-  Workshops are organised to enhance the psychomotor aspects of the participants in a shorter group. Mostly workshops are conducted in a smaller group of participants to learn and to enhance the specific skills. Workshops are more organised in comparison of seminars as specific resource persons and more interested participants are gathered in workshop to learn the skills in a college department or university campus.

Seminar:- A seminar is conducted in a college or university campus to present the work and thought on given theme or sub-theme. As seminar is comparatively less organised in comparison of a conference, the participants are more free to present their short researcher work in seminars through sub-themes but these should be relevant to the main theme also. Moreover, seminars are conducted for shorter period often in comparison of conference.

Symposium:- Symposium is a very popular method of teaching and learning in higher classes for a specific topic. Generally, it is conducted in shorter group of participant in college department of university campus. Through the symposium method of learning and teaching, the participants come to the conclusion after discussing and sharing their opinion on a specific topic. We can say it ‘Intellectual-entertainment’ also. Adjustment level, self-learning habits, cooperation and speaking capabilities are encouraged through symposium method of teaching and learning.

Conference, Workshop, Seminar and Symposium are held on different levels, such as regional, national and international levels also.

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Types of Universities in India

universities in india

Types of Universities in India

There are different sort of universities in India. The following are the types of universities in India.

  1. Central Universities: These are the universities which are set up by the special act of Indian Parliament. UGC provides funds to these universities. Indian President is the visitor of such type of universities.
  2. State Universities: These are the universities which are set up by the special act of the state legislature. UGC provides budgetary plans for such types of universities while state government provides plan grants for such types of universities.
  3. Deemed Universities: The higher learning institutions which work at very high standard in study areas can be declared deemed universities by the Central Government on the basis of advice provided by University Grand Commission. These institutions are ‘deemed to be university’ by the UGC Section 3 of UGC Act.
  4. Private Universities: These are the higher learning institutions which are established under the Central or State act such as Society Registration Act 1860, Company Registration Act 1956 and by any other corresponding Government law. These institutions are recognized by University Grant Commission to award the degree to the students.

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