Primary and Secondary Data

primary and secondary data

Primary and Secondary Data

 

The data collection is one of the most important steps in research process. The data is collected to obtain the various information and records for the purpose of the research. The data is collected through primary and secondary data collection methods.

 Primary Data

This type of data is collected for the very first time and it is not used or published by anywhere else earlier. Such type of data is collected mainly for the present study purpose. Primary data collection consumes high cost and more time.

 

Sources of Primary Data :- The main and important sources of primary data are as follow:

Observation method

Interview method

E-mail Survey method

Questionnaire method

Survey method

Case studies method

 SECONDARY DATA

 This type of data is available data which was collected by someone else already. This sort of data is highly authentic as it was collected and analyzed by the other researchers in advance earlier.

 

Such type of data is available at low cost and in few time but sometime it is not as much relevant as the researchers need in their studies.

 

Sources of Secondary Data :- The major important sources of secondary data are as follow:

Different sort of publications of state, central or foreign governments such as census 2011 of Indian Government and Health Reports of WHO.

Different books, magazines, periodicals,  research journals and newspapers.

Different synopsis and thesis submitted by research scientists in colleges or universities.

Thanks for reading about primary and secondary data and the sources of primary and secondary data ! Please share also.

 

Read more about:

Recommended E-Books for Research Aptitude

10 Tips to Crack UGC NET in First Attempt

NTA UGC NET STRATEGIES

Free Revision Notes

 

Free Mock Tests

 

Read more relevant posts for NTA UGC NET on https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

 

You may also like

Career Options after UGC NET

career options after ugc net

Career Options after UGC NET

As far as my experience is concerned, most of the UGC NET qualifier choose the following first two options yet there are multiple career options after clearing UGC NET examination. Let’s explore these options which are as follow:

  1. Joining the Job: Once your UGC NET examination is cleared, you are eligible for the post of Assistant Professor throughout the country. For this, you have to apply for the vacancies in colleges or university campuses. When you are shortlisted and you have cleared the interview, you can join the reputed post of Assistant Professor in university college or campus. You can apply for different sort of teaching jobs in colleges or campuses for example: Guest Faculty, Contractual Faculty or Permanent Faculty etc.

  2. Ph.D. or M.Phil : After clearing UGC NET, you can apply for M.Phil or Ph.D. for further research studies. If you have cleared NET with JRF and selected for the JRF post in university college or campus, you will be funded by UGC for the purpose also. If you are teaching as an Assistant Professor in a college or university campus and don’t want the avail the benefits of NET JRF, your Ph.D. will be so helpful your promotion to Assistant Professor post over there.
  3. Taking the Government Project: It is also another career option after UGC NET. You can join the Government project also. For the purpose you have to apply for the desired project and after selection you will be appointed for the particular project for a specific time. You can earn a handsome amount on such type of projects also. Moreover, you will earn a lot of research experience through all these experiences which will be further fruitful to you in your career.
  4. Other Options: As the UGC NET is one of the toughest exams in India, It opens the doors to multiple opportunities. After clearing UGC NET you can become an author, UGC NET expert and trainer or you can join the managerial or HR posts in public sectors such as BHEL, ONGC and IOCL etc.

        Well, all jobs are fine and it depends upon you in which career option after UGC NET you are interest.

       Right Preparation strategies are required to clear the UGC NET examinations. Click here to explore the Tips to Crack NTA UGC NET examination.

      Thanks for reading ! Please share it also.

      Best of Luck from Mohd. Rizwan

      Admin Blogger

      https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

 

You may also like

Discussion Method of Teaching

group discussion
Discussion Method of Teaching

Discussion method is one of the most popular teaching methods. Discuss word is taken from the latin word ‘discutere’ which meaning is to shake something. In this way through discussion we reach to some conclusion by shaking, talking and sharing ideas about a pre-decided topic among the participants.

The students sitting in U-shape or in circle shape share their ideas while the teacher evaluates them and by doing so they learn better than the lecture method, seminar method or conference method. Discussion method enhances the critical thinking, confidence, team work, language skills, leadership skills and participation skills etc. in the students.

There are different types of discussion method such as Panel Discussion, Formal Discussion, Informal Discussion, Individual Discussion and Parliamentary Discussion.

However discussion method is time consuming and all the topics cannot be taught through discussion method.

The teacher is the facilitator in discussion method so he must plan all the things before starting the discussion among students, establish the rules of discussion and he must motivate the students for taking the initiatives in the discussion.

Thanks for reading. Please share also !

Get more updates, relevant posts and other important study material on https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

You may also like

Types of Researches

TYPES OF RESEARCHES

Research

Research is a search for the knowledge. It is a scientific effort to study a problem through a systematic process. A researcher finds results and new knowledge with the help of research. I provide here few major types of researches. This short description will help to understand these types of researches and to solve the objective questions in the examinations.

 

Types of Researches

  1. Fundamental Research: It is called basic research also. Scientific Theories are developed in this research.
  1. Experimental Research: In this research cause and effect relationship is studied through manipulation and controlling one or more independent variables and measuring the changes in other dependent variables.
  1. Action Research: In action research a researcher or participant use his or her own practices for the immediate solution of any problem through various strategies and techniques.
  1. Applied Research: In applied research the applicability of a theory of principle is studied to the solution of a problem.
  1. Ex-Post Facto Research: This type of research is to investigate cause and effect relationship and it is conducted after an event to observe the effect on dependent variable. The researcher has no or less control on independent variable in such type of research.
  1. Historical Research: This research is for the analysis of the historical and past incidents. It deals with the discovery of the data related to the past.
  1. Descriptive Research: It is used to obtain the certain information concerning the present status of the phenomena. Such type of research is commonly used is theses and dissertations of educational research with the help of questionnaire and interviews etc.  

Thanks for reading.

 

Prepared by:

 

Mohd. Rizwan

M.Com, M.A. (Education), B.Ed. & NET

Assistant Professor

Faculty of Education,

Kumaun University, Nainital

 

You may also like

NTA-UGC-NET Journalism and Mass Communication – Important Books

mozzam khan

NTA-UGC-NET Journalism and Mass Communication – Important Books

1. Mcquail’s Mass Communication Theory

2. Mass Communication in India By Keval J. Kumar

3. Mass Media Research. An Introduction By JR. D. Wimmer &.R. Dominick  

4. Journalism In India By Parthasarathy

5. Mass Communication and Journalism for UGC-NET/SLET: Objective Type Questions By  K.R. Gupta and D.S. Paul

6. UGC-NET/SET Mass Communication and Journalism Guide By Arvind Mohan Dwivedi

 

Suggested By:

Mr. Mozzam Khan

Assistant Professor

MJMC, NET & Ph.D. (P)

Department of Journalism & Mass Communication Department

Gyanarthi Media College, Kashipur, UttarakhandParthasarathy

You may also like

NTA UGC NET PAPER 1 IMPORTANT BOOKS

important books ugc net

As I recommended earlier that no single book can cover all contents in it. In my preparation time I used multiple books for a single unit to be covered. Many of those book were found not useful while some of them were quite necessary. After qualifying the NTA-UGC-NET also, I observed that many new and good books are also available in the market. Overall here, I would like to suggest you some important books for the preparation.According to me, some of important books are as following:

ugc net general paper

51 TIPS TO CRACK NTA-UGC-NET: For First (General) Paper

1. UGC NET/JRF,SLET First Paper lucent

2. NTA UGC NET / SET / JRF - Paper 1 Teaching and Research Aptitude updated syllabus 2019 with Solved paper

3. Research Methodology : Methods And Techniques

4. Proficiency in Reading Comprehension Simplifying the 'Passage' for you

5. Mass Communication in India

6. A Modern Approach to Logical Reasoning

7. Wiley's Reasoning Ability and Quantitative Aptitude

8. Data Interpretation & Data Sufficiency

9. Educational Technology And ICT

10. Environment By Shankar

11. Higher Education in India

Please Note: These are the suggestions of particular author only, However particular author or the publisher don’t take any responsibility for sure success in examination. you can take other books also for preparation from the recommendations of your teachers, seniors and subject experts.

You may also like

Useful Devices for Reading Purpose for NTA UGC NET on Amazon

Find more on NTA UGC NET: 

 

Tips to Crack UGC NET June 2020
https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/tips-to-crack-ugc-net-june-2020/
FREE Download NTA-UGC-NET: GENERAL PAPER (Important Books Directory)

www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-free-book

NTA-UGC-NET: Unit-Research Aptitude Question-Answer Series 

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/question-answer-series/

How to Qualify NTA UGC NET

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/how-to-qualify-nta-ugc-net/

Find huge variety of recommended books for preparation of NTA-UGC-NET on

http://ntanetpaper1.com/

UGC NET Syllabus

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-syllabus/

UGC NET Admit Card

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-admit-card/

UGC NET EXAM  PATTERN

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-exam-pattern/

 

NET Exam Eligibility

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/net-exam-eligibility/

Tips to Crack NTA-UGC-NET

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/tips-to-crack-nta-ugc-net/

NET Full Form

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/net-full-form/

Get more books on UGC NET Exam Tips on

http://mohammadrizwan.com/

Thanks for reading and share also.

Team https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

You may also like

Tips to Crack UGC NET June 2020

Tips to Crack UGC NET June 2020

ugc net june 2020

Tips to Crack UGC NET June 2020

NTA-UGC-NET is one of the toughest examination to determine the eligibility for the post of Assistant Professor in India. Near about one million aspirants register every year for this particular examination in more than 80 subjects. This examination consist two papers. First Paper is general and same for all aspirants and Second paper is subject specific.

In my experience of training UGC NET aspirants for more than five years, I suggest the following tips to crack UGC NET examination.

Manage Time:

 

As you know NET examination is one of the toughest examinations in India, we must prepare for it with time managing skills. Manage your time intelligently for self study, group study, revision and practice. Believe, you can do it with time management in first attempt.

 

Choose Authentic Books:

As the market is full of the books for preparing the NTA-UGCNET examination. With the advice of your lecturer, senior or subject expert, you must choose the authentic book written by subject expert. The authentic books save valuable time, clear concepts and present almost all necessary content in an error free way. Find recommended books on NTA-UGC-NET on ntanetpaper1.com

Do Quality Study

Study hours vary from person to person. In my point of view a self-study of 5 hours is sufficient for a person to prepare for this examination. You can set these hours in different time slots. Remember, quality study hours matter always.

 

Make Notes:

Definitely, this habit can raise the success ratio in the examination. It will boost your concentration in the study. I experienced that I got concentration even in that unit in which I faced difficulties earlier. You must prepare your own notes by writing, underlining, recording and highlighting the main facts. In revision time, these your own notes will reduce the stress and finally you can revise whole syllabus in few days. If you can make your own questions in your written notes you can secure distinguished percentage in the merit. Making notes is always a successful strategy for the examination.

Know the Importance of First Paper:

It is general paper and compulsory to all aspirants. This paper carries 50 questions (100 marks) which is 1/3 of total marks (including marks of First Paper and Second Paper). So each aspirant must take it seriously and prepare for it attentively. According to my experience qualifying this paper is a determining factor for the success in NTA-UGC-NET examination.

 

Avoid Distraction:

You should avoid different sort of distractions you find in your surroundings and avoid also those people who make you confused and the people who waste your precious time. Click here to read more on Time Management Tips on NTA-UGC-NET exam.

Do Revision:

If you have good command over subject, do practice yet for better performance, if you are weak in the various sections of the syllabus, do rigorous practice throughout the subject. Through practice you will command on your subject soon.

Improve Question Solving Speed:

As you know there are 50 questions in First Paper and 100 questions in Second Paper (Total 150 questions) and time given is 60 minutes for First Paper and 120 minutes for Second Paper (Total 180 minutes) so for each question 1.20 minutes are allotted. While other formalities in the examination hall consume the time also. My point is to suggest that you should raise your question solving speed to solve all the questions correctly.

Solve Mock Tests:

In present scenario, we can check our performance giving mock test papers online. There are many authentic websites through which we can ascertain it clearly. In my point of view, it is important for confidence building purpose also. You can check your performance free of cost on https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/free-mock-tests/.

 

Study in Groups:

Self study has its own limitations, you must study for few hours in groups also. For few hours, study with your friends who are preparing for NET examination. You can study mutually for General paper and for same subject. Join dedicated websites and groups on social media for NTA UGC NET only and give some time to these groups in a day. Visit dedicated websites for NET examination frequently for updates and tips for the NET examination. For the purpose you can do the followings:

You can Join  https://chat.whatsapp.com/BJbmQdFyYQL0qcSnk9FO3I

You can Join https://t.me/ugcnetbooks

You can visit  https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

 

These 10 Tips to Crack UGC NET in First Attempt are taken from the book, “51 Tips to Crack NTA-UGC-NET: General Paper” written by Mohammad Rizwan. This book can be bought from https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

 

Thanks for reading, Share it also.

Find more on NTA UGC NET: 

 

FREE Download NTA-UGC-NET: GENERAL PAPER (Important Books Directory)

www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-free-book

NTA-UGC-NET: Unit-Research Aptitude Question-Answer Series 

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/question-answer-series/

How to Qualify NTA UGC NET

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/how-to-qualify-nta-ugc-net/

Find huge variety of recommended books for preparation of NTA-UGC-NET on

http://ntanetpaper1.com/

UGC NET Syllabus

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-syllabus/

UGC NET Admit Card

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-admit-card/

UGC NET EXAM  PATTERN

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-exam-pattern/

 

NET Exam Eligibility

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/net-exam-eligibility/

Tips to Crack NTA-UGC-NET

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/tips-to-crack-nta-ugc-net/

NET Full Form

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/net-full-form/

Get more books on UGC NET Exam Tips on

http://mohammadrizwan.com/

Thanks for reading and share also.

Team https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

You may also like

NTA has Uploaded the Question Papers with provisional Answer Keys of UGC-NET December 2019

ugc net answer keys

NTA UGC NET December 2019 Answer Keys has been released on the following link:

https://testservices.nic.in/examsys/root/Home.aspx?enc=Ei4cajBkK1gZSfgr53ImFR+IGw/HNgtGkqFO8PHqeUxqey88ieifnJP0clIOGqxU

 

You can challenge provisional answer keys till 13/12/2019 (upto 11:50 PM)

Join https://t.me/easymarks

Find more on NTA UGC NET:

UGC NET Revision Notes Unit Wise

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/revision-notes/

Free Books Websites Useful for NTA-UGC-NET

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/free-books-websites-useful-for-nta-ugc-net/

Useful Websites for Regular Updates on NTA-UGC-NET

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/useful-websites-for-regular-updates-on-nta-ugc-net/

Free Mock Tests for NTA-UGC-NET

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/free-mock-tests/

NTA-UGC-NET Supplement # 2 General Paper Unit Research Aptitude

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-supplement-2/

NTA-UGC-NET Supplement # 1 General Paper Unit- Information and Communication and Technology (ICT)

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-supplement-1/ 

FREE Download NTA-UGC-NET: GENERAL PAPER (Important Books Directory)

www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-free-book

NTA-UGC-NET: Unit-Research Aptitude Question-Answer Series

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/question-answer-series/

How to Qualify NTA UGC NET

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/how-to-qualify-nta-ugc-net/

Find huge variety of recommended books for preparation of NTA-UGC-NET on

http://ntanetpaper1.com/

UGC NET Syllabus

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-syllabus/

UGC NET Admit Card

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-admit-card/

UGC NET EXAM  PATTERN

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-exam-pattern/

 

NET Exam Eligibility

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/net-exam-eligibility/

Tips to Crack NTA-UGC-NET

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/tips-to-crack-nta-ugc-net/

NET Full Form

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/net-full-form/

Get more books on UGC NET Exam Tips on

http://mohammadrizwan.com/

Get  competitive and other books on  http://indiabookstores.com  also.  

Thanks for reading and share also.

Team https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/

NTA-UGC-NET Supplement # 2 General Paper Unit Research Aptitude

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-supplement-2/

NTA-UGC-NET Supplement # 1 General Paper Unit- Information and Communication and Technology (ICT)

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-supplement-1/ 

FREE Download NTA-UGC-NET: GENERAL PAPER (Important Books Directory)

www.ugcnetbooks.com/nta-ugc-net-free-book

NTA-UGC-NET: Unit-Research Aptitude Question-Answer Series

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/question-answer-series/

How to Qualify NTA UGC NET

 https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/how-to-qualify-nta-ugc-net/

Find huge variety of recommended books for preparation of NTA-UGC-NET on

http://ntanetpaper1.com/

UGC NET Syllabus

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-syllabus/

UGC NET Admit Card

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-admit-card/

UGC NET EXAM  PATTERN

https://www.ugcnetbooks.com/ugc-net-exam-pattern/

You may also like